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Kartli

Kartli

Kartli is divided into two sides Shida and Kvemo Kartli regions. Kvemo Kartli is located in a semi-desert, subtropical and mountainous alpine zone. Its landscape consists of mainly the fields and woods and valleys in total.

Ridges in the middle of the forests are dominated by oak and hornbeam; there are beech, maple, and other. In Marneuli plain places we meet semi-desert vegetation. On the Kura plains there are preserved floodplain forests. In Kvemo Kartli the largest rivers are: The Kura, The Khrami and The Algeti downstreams. In the territory of Kvemo Kartli there are the following lakes: The Jandara, The Tsurbliani, The Arkiani, The Bareti and The Long Lake. In this region there are the Tsalka, the Dmanisi and the Algeti reservoirs. Internal Kartli- eastern Georgia, includes historical and geographical center of the province of Shida Kartli. Accoding to the legislation there are these following administrative territorial units in Shida Kartli: Tskhinvali city; Gori Municipality; Kaspi; Kaspi Municipality; Kareli municipality; Khashuri Municipality and the Municipality of Java. In the part of the region, which is controlled by the central government, there are 372 settlements, including Gori, Kaspi, Kareli, Khashuri, Surami and Agara. The southern part of the region is built along the main road and railway line of Georgia, and it has a significant industrial potential.

Kartli Culture and Traditions

Kartli boasts with its historical monuments. Among them is one of the most important historical monuments – Dmanisi fortress. Dmanisi in the Middle Ages was one of the most powerful cities. It was crossed by caravan routes. According to historical records, there was the former summer residence of King Tamara. There are still preserved medieval fortress and citadel, wine cellar, bathroom, halls, prisons, residential and agricultural buildings in ruins. Tunnel should be noted, which dates back to the XII cen. There is located the VI century three-church basilica. The castle has a citadel which was fortified in the XI century. The main part of the fortress was built in the IX century. Kartli is especially interesting in terms of archeology. In this territory, in particular in Dmanisi were made the most important excavations. Under the buildings there were found out to be a large number of ancient sediment layers (extinct) animals (elephant, rhinoceros, giraffe and more ..) and their bones with primitive stone tools. In recent years, there was a discovery of the oldest human remains (the lower jaw, foot bone and two skulls). Experts determined that the Dmanisi hominids lived in this area 1 800 000 years ago. They are not only the oldest Caucasians, but it is considered to be the first Euro-Asians. Founded skulls were rebuilt with computer equipment, and were given the names. Among the world’s archaeological circles they are known as Mzia and Zezva. Manikins are kept in the museum named after Simon Janashia.

Climate

In the lowland of Kartli there is humid subtropical and tropical-continental climate (average temperature is 12-13 C degrees). In the mountainous region of Javakheti range there is a moderately humid climate (average temperature is 3-12 ะก degrees). In Tsalka there is a mild humid subtropical climate (the average temperature does not exceed 6 degrees C in year).

Kartli Culture and Traditions

Kartli boasts with its historical monuments. Among them is one of the most important historical monuments – Dmanisi fortress. Dmanisi in the Middle Ages was one of the most powerful cities. It was crossed by caravan routes. According to historical records, there was the former summer residence of King Tamara. There are still preserved medieval fortress and citadel, wine cellar, bathroom, halls, prisons, residential and agricultural buildings in ruins. Tunnel should be noted, which dates back to the XII cen. There is located the VI century three-church basilica. The castle has a citadel which was fortified in the XI century. The main part of the fortress was built in the IX century. Kartli is especially interesting in terms of archeology. In this territory, in particular in Dmanisi were made the most important excavations. Under the buildings there were found out to be a large number of ancient sediment layers (extinct) animals (elephant, rhinoceros, giraffe and more ..) and their bones with primitive stone tools. In recent years, there was a discovery of the oldest human remains (the lower jaw, foot bone and two skulls). Experts determined that the Dmanisi hominids lived in this area 1 800 000 years ago. They are not only the oldest Caucasians, but it is considered to be the first Euro-Asians. Founded skulls were rebuilt with computer equipment, and were given the names. Among the world’s archaeological circles they are known as Mzia and Zezva. Manikins are kept in the museum named after Simon Janashia.